Elements of a Nextjournal Article

A Comprehensive List of All Available Content Types

Philipp Markovics

Paragraphs and Lists

The paragraph is the simplest Nextjournal node type. Internally, paragraphs use a rich-text editing component for text styles: italic, bold, monospaced text and links.

You can embed inline nodes in paragraphs: mathematical formulas, like ω=2πf\omega = 2 \pi f, references to a code cell’s result, like

, and numbers that can be referenced in code cells, like temperature = 32ºC.


Lists are restricted to a single level at the moment. Typing * followed by a space into an empty paragraph quickly transforms the paragraph into a list:

  • A list items

  • followed by another list item


Sections give structure to an article in a tree-like format. Sections can be nested. The section's nesting level defines its heading size and numbering.

Nesting Sections

A section’s nesting level can be changed by promoting or demoting the section via its action menu. Hover over a section to expose the ••• menu button in the gutter. Opening the action menu will show a Promote Heading or Demote Heading action depending on the section’s current nesting level.

Disabling Section Numbering

To disable the numerals appearing before section headings, open Article Settings and deactivate "Numbered Section Headings".

Files and Images

Files can be uploaded straight to an article. Here is an example of an uploaded CSV file with global temperature data:




If the uploaded file is an image, including SVGs, it will be rendered inline. If the image size exceeds the article’s default content width, layout controls allow expanding the image width beyond the article boundaries.

Images may be captioned.

Wide Images

Standard Width Image

Framed Images

Code Cells

Executable code cells form the core of the editor. Some cells execute remotely, on the Nextjournal cluster (Bash, Clojure, Python, R and Julia) while others execute in the browser (Javascript and ClojureScript).

Runtimes and Environments


When adding the first cell for a particular language, a runtime is created along with it and added to the code panel. New cells using the same language are appended to the previously existing runtime.

Runtimes provide an isolated computational resource for code cells to run in. For remote execution, code cells that share a runtime share process state and an ephemeral filesystem in the form of a Docker container. Browser-based runtimes execute in a web worker.

Remote runtimes are templated from an environment: a Docker image providing initial filesystem state, a language runtime, and preinstalled software packages.

By default, each new runtime is based on the Nextjournal Default environment.

Bash Cells and Runtimes

Bash cells exhibit special behavior. If another language runtime exists, bash cells will be appended to that runtime. This way, you can perform command line work underneath the language process, such as installing Python packages or downloading data.

Referencing Files

As noted above, files can be uploaded directly to an article. They can be referenced in a code cell or paragraph by typing Ctrl/Cmd+E and selecting the file you want to reference.

This example takes the global-temperature.csv file uploaded above, reads it, and returns the first character from the file.

(require '[clojure.java.io :as io])
(with-open [reader (io/reader 
  (char (.read reader)))


Code cells, by default, display the result of the last expression and standard output it generates.

Certain result types, like simple data structures, plots and images, are given special treatment or enhanced by the editor.

Currently, Nextjournal provides the following result viewers:

Data (the default)

If the last expression is a data structure, it's rendered as an expandable tree.

{:number 1
 :string "A string"
 :nested-map {:key-1 1 :key-2 2}
 :nested-vector [1 2 3 [4 5 6]]}
Map {:number: 1, :string: "A string", :nested-map: Map, :nested-vector: Vector(4)}

Plotly Results

Remote language runtimes, except Bash, automatically render Plotly graphs generated by the language-specific Plotly package. ClojureScript and Javascript cells can use the Nextjournal.plot function.

var size = 1500, x = [], y = [], z = [], i, j;
for (var i = 0; i < size; i++) {
	x[i] = y[i] = -2 * Math.PI + 4 * Math.PI * i / size;
  z[i] = new Array(size);
for (var i = 0; i < size; i++) {
	for (j = 0; j < size; j++) {
		var r2 = x[i] * x[i] + y[j] * y[j];
    z[i][j] = Math.sin(x[i]) * Math.cos(y[j]) * Math.sin(r2) / Math.log(r2+1);
Nextjournal.plot([{ z: z, x: x, y: y, type: 'contour' }]);
Shift+Enter to run

Image Results

Images generated by cells are displayed automatically, under certain conditions. Here is an example of a R cell that’s generating an image of a plot.

hist(rnorm(200, 1), breaks=100)

Table Results

If the results is a data frame or CSV file, it will render as table that shows the first 10 entries of the result. Here’s a R cell that renders the mtcars demo data:

0 items

Console Output

Process standard output and standard error are streamed to the browser, between the source code and the final result. Cell output can be toggled. This Bash cell lists the installed PyPi Python packages.

pip freeze
Bash in Python

Working With Results

Writing Results to the Filesystem

Files written to a runtime are only accessible from within that runtime.

The special /results path exists for making a result file referenceable, permanent and downloadable. The cell below writes a file to /results and Nextjournal automatically does the rest:

echo "some results" >> /results/results-file.txt
ls /results
Bash in Python

Referencing Results

The file is now downloadable in the browser and can be referenced from other code cells, or even from another article. All results on the filesystem can be referenced using Cmd/Ctrl+E in a code cell:

snowy-kingBash in Python

Content Addressed Storage

A note on storage. It may surprise you that results-file.txt no longer exists in /results:

ls /results
Bash in Python

All results are content-addressed. If results-file.txt is updated with new results, Nextjournal does not write over the original file. The reference,

, will simply point to the new results. This provides a form of version control for everything written to the filesystem.

This process is invisible to the end-user while providing immense flexibility and complete reproducibility.

Code Listings

Code listings are not executable — they're for showing syntax-highlighted code in a larger variety of languages.

(->> (read)
     (while true))

Custom Languages

Code Listings also have a special option for custom languages. Selection "Custom" from the languages menu removes syntax highlighting from the code listing and allows for a custom language label.

AddExp = AddExp "+" MulExp  -- plus
         | AddExp "-" MulExp  -- minus
         | MulExp


Formula can appear as block, where take up the whole width of the article, or inline, where they appear in the flow of a paragraph. Formula are written in LaTeX and rendered in-browser using katex.

Block Formulas

Inline Formulas

Here is some text showing inlined LaTeX for an amplitudeAA, a frequencyff, and a phase ϕ\phi.

Embedding Tweets and Videos

Insert an embed node and simply paste in a link to a tweet or YouTube or Vimeo video. If the link is recognizable, the media will show.


YouTube Videos

Vimeo Videos


Here is some content that’s initially invisible because it lives in the collapsed appendix section of this article.

Runtimes (4)